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Adapted from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, this comprehensive guide offers up-to-date information on formatting electronic references in APA Style.

It outlines the key elements to include when referencing electronic sources, with an emphasis on using the digital object identifier (DOI) to locate web-based information reliably. Most important, it provides a wealth of examples for readers to model for everything from online journal articles to supplemental data sets and measurement instruments to books, videos, apps, websites, podcasts, blog posts, and social media. Approximately 70 examples are provided for readers to consider as they learn how to create reliable references for electronic sources.

Students and other writers will find this guide indispensable as well as convenient to download and use when creating a reference list.

Table of Contents


How References Are Constructed


General Guidelines

  • Consistency
  • Use of the Archival Copy of Version of Record
  • Electronic Sources and Locator Information

Reference Examples

  • Periodicals
  • Books, Book Chapters, and Reference Books
  • Technical and Research Reports and Other Gray Literature
  • Meetings and Symposia
  • Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses
  • Reviews and Peer Commentary
  • Audiovisual Media
  • Data Sets, Software, Measurement Instruments, and Apparatus
  • Unpublished and Informally Published Works
  • Websites, Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists, and Social Media


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